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Grammar Practices


  • Don’t use “that” needlessly

  • Use “his or her” when an individual general subject was referred to, and either “his” or “her” with recurring, specific examples. Use plural construction or recast sentence whenever possible to avoid this issue.

  • Adjectival Phrase Modifying a Noun:

    • Adjective-noun noun (high-school student)

    • Noun-noun noun (steak-cheese omelet)

  • Adjectival Phrase for Ages:

    • Francis, who is 21 years old…

    • Francis, a 21-year-old student…

    • Avoid starting sentences with ages (Twenty-one–year-old Francis)


  • Spell out numbers from 1-9 (one, two, three…) – except when referring to purely numerical measures (e.g., 6%, $8.00)

  • Use numerical symbols for two-digit numbers (10+) – except at beginning of sentences

  • When referring to two measurements in the same context use numerical digits with an en-dash (8–10) unless both are between 1 and 9 (ex: two to five)

  • Age: numerical digits with preceding and following commas (Bob, 6, is…), spell out ages from 1-9 (the four-year-old boy / my four-year-old / he was four years old).

  • Month, day, year (April 2, 2012)

  • Always write times with : and either a.m. or p.m. (4:00 p.m.   11:27 a.m.)

  • Denote decades as 1960s, not 1960’s

  • Rule: If you have numbers in different categories, use numerals for one category and spell out the other.  Example: Given the budget constraints, if all 30 history students attend the four plays, then the 7 math students will be able to attend only two plays. (Note that students are represented with figures and plays are represented with words). Examples: I asked for 30 pencils for my five employees / I have 10 toes but only one nose.

  • %, $ – use symbol (#, @ – NEVER USE these symbols)

  • Spell out “inches”, “feet”

  • Keep consistent dating convention (Ex: using “to” or “-”, the number alone or “_th,_nd”, “and” or “&”, etc)


Rule of thumb: spell out and then place acronym in parentheses for first mention. Use acronym for all other references. Do not use “the” before an organization name or acronym (“The Generation Peace Academy went to Korea.”).

  • ACLC—American Clergy Leadership Conference

  • CARP—Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles

  • CAUSA—Confederation of the Associations for the Unification of the Societies of the Americas

  • CIG Missionaries—Cheon Il Guk Missionaries

  • Family Federation for a Heavenly USA (No Acronym)—Family Federation USA for short. This replaces "FFWPU"

  • Family Federation International

  • Family Federation for a Heavenly Korea/Japan/Europe/etc.

  • FFWPU—Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (for now, we are no longer using this acronym)

  • FEEF—Family Education and Empowerment Foundation

  • GPA—Generation Peace Academy

  • HSA-UWC—Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity

  • IEF—International Educational Foundation (this mostly was in the former Soviet Union and produced Principle-based character education curricula for public schools)

  • IPEC—International Peace Education Center

  • PWPA—Professors World Peace Academy

  • UTS—Unification Theological Seminary (never say Barrytown College)

  • UPF—Universal Peace Federation

  • WFWP—Women’s Federation for World Peace

  • YAYAM—Youth and Young Adult Ministry

  • YSP—Youth and Students for Peace

Positions and Titles

Rule of thumb: After listing their official title, clarify these people’s connection to CARP. Clarify if they are alumni, mentors, educators, or supporters.


  • Rev. Dr. Sun Myung Moon, founder of Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles (CARP) could also refer to as ‘founder of Unificationism and the Family Federation’ if it becomes necessary

  • Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon, co-founder of Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles (CARP), could also refer to as ‘co-founder of Unification and the Family Federation and currently leading the Family Federation movement worldwide’ if it becomes necessary

  • Sun Jin Moon, President of Family Federation International, daughter of founders

  • Prof. Yeon Ah Moon, President, Universal Peace Federation-Korea; Chairwoman, Hyojeong World Peace Foundation, wife of former W-CARP President, Hyo Jin Moon

  • Hyo Jin Moon, former President of World Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles (W-CARP)

  • Dr. Ki Hoon Kim, Vice President of Family Federation International, CARP alumni


  • Dr. Ki Hoon Kim, Regional Chairman, Family Federation North America, CARP alumni

  • Rev. Demian Dunkley, President, Family Federation for a Heavenly USA (use appropriate title based on context & story)

    • First time use full title, second time Demian (NOT Rev. Dunkley, NOT Rev. Demian)

  • Rev. Ernest Patton, Southeast Subregional Director, Family Federation for a Heavenly USA

  • Rev. David Rendel, Midwest Subregional Director, Family Federation for a Heavenly USA

  • Rev. John Jackson, Southwest Subregional Director, Family Federation for a Heavenly USA

  • Rev. Larry Krishnek, Western Subregional Director, Family Federation for a Heavenly USA

  • Rev. Miilhan Stephens, Secretary General of Northeast Subregion, Family Federation for a Heavenly USA

  • Thomas McDevitt, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Washington Times

  • Dr. Luonne Rouse, National Co-Chairman of the American Clergy Leadership Conference (ACLC)

  • Archbishop Sulanch Lewis Rose, Co-President of the American Clergy Leadership Conference (ACLC)

  • Rev. Mark Abernathy, Co-President of the American Clergy Leadership Conference (ACLC)

  • Dr. Michael Jenkins, Chairman, Universal Peace Federation (UPF) USA,

  • Archbishop George Augustus Stallings Jr., Chairman International Association for Peace and Development (IAPD)

  • Rev. Bruce Grodner, American Clergy Leadership Conference (ACLC) National Executive Director

  • Rev. A. Curtis Farrow, President and CEO, Irving Street. Please note that any reference to him must be worded as “Emmy Award winning producer A. Curtis Farrow ...etc."

  • Bishop Jesse Edwards, Chairman, American Clergy Leadership Conference NYC, Co-Pastor of the Family Church of New York City

  • Ricardo De Sena, Secretary General for the Universal Peace Federation, North America

  • Mari Curry, Director of Education, Family Federation for a Heavenly USA

  • Rev. Andrew Compton, Director of Education, International Peace Education Center

  • Crescentia DeGoede, Director of Blessing & Family Ministry, Family Federation for a Heavenly USA

  • Angelika Selle, President of Women’s Federation for World Peace (WFWP) USA

  • Katarina Connery, Vice President of Women’s Federation for World Peace (WFWP) USA

  • Roland Platt, Director of Generation Peace Academy (GPA)

  • Naokimi Ushiroda, National Director of Youth and Students Ministry, former President of CARP USA

  • Teresa Rischl, President of Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles (CARP) USA

  • Tasnah Bercy, National Young Adult Ministry Coordinator

  • Hiroshi Inose, Director of Kodan USA, CARP alumni

  • Rev. Soichiro Nakamura, long-time education director for Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (FFWPU) Japan, CARP alumni

  • Rev. Masayuki Kachi, long-time Divine Principle Educator for Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (FFWPU) Japan, CARP alumni

  • Any Parent/Kodan mentor, refer to them as a CARP Mentor (not parental mentor or spiritual mentor)

  • Any DP lecturer, refer to as CARP Educator (incl. Gerry Servito, Rev. Soichiro Nakamura, Rev. Masayuki Kachi, and any other DP lecturers; do not use ‘lecturer’ - use presenter, speaker, or educator), ALT: you may use Principle Educator

*For a full list of FFWPU USA leaders, visit


Unification Terminology for CARP

*Avoid using air quotes (“ “) around titles or unfamiliar terms as they convey doubt

  • Unification movement – NOT Church; use sparingly, stick with FFWPU

  • HQ → National CARP (NCARP) or CARP USA

  • Unificationist(s) – NEVER “member”

  • “Heavenly Parent” – NOT “Heavenly Father” when referring to God as parent. Find a way to re-word so that it is not gender specific.

    • Heavenly Parent is always singular. In the possessive, write: Heavenly Parent’s

    • You may also use ‘God’

  • Never use True Father and True Mother, and True Parents, unless otherwise instructed. Use their full names: Rev. and Mrs. Sun Myung Moon, OR Rev. Dr. Sun Myung Moon and Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon, then Father Moon and Mother Moon, respectively.

  • When referring to True Mother in an official capacity, Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon, especially when used alone.

  • True Father ascended to the spirit world – NOT departed, died, passed away, etc. no reference to him as being dead or gone.

  • If True Mother is the Keynote Speaker and referred to in text only without a photo: Always first listing before other speakers or entertainers

  • True Parents' grandchildren / True Parents' children - lower case "g" and lower case "c"

  • When addressing True Children, use "Moon" instead of "Nim." (ex. Hyo Jin Moon NOT Hyo Jin Nim)

  • Never say True Parents lived/resided/dwelled in reference to any church property, including East Garden, Belvedere, Han Nam Dong, or any other place they lived.

  • The word “victory” is overused when referring to providential activities. We suggest re-wording the sentence so the word “victory” does not need to appear. It’s about the idea, not the word.

    • Other overused words: investment, foundation

  • Distinguishing first and second generation members:

    • Use “new to the Principle” for first generation or “guests” for those attending programs for the first time (or very few times)

    • Avoid using the term otherwise. The point is if they knew Principle coming in or if they didn’t. You can also list when they joined CARP (not the UC!) as another indicator.

    • If you’re referring to partnerships with the UC/YAYAM and there are non-CARP BC’s involved, you may use “young Unificationist(s)” or simply “Unificationist(s)” plus their age.

  • Use CARP members, CARP leaders, CARP officers (for board/e-board), or CARP guests. You can list a specific position: “CARP President at school name” for a specific person. You can also use “student leader”. Try to avoid saying “core member” because it is undefined.

  • When referring to local churches use the full name of the church (i.e. “Los Angeles Family Church”; if relevant also indicate that it is part of FFWPU).

  • Replace “mankind” with “humankind” IN ALL CASES

  • Tribal Messiahship – don’t use this.

  • For True Parents’ words, "message" NOT "speech"

  • If you have a guest speaker, make sure to clarify their connection to CARP. If they have no clear connection, use “guest speaker” plus any accolades.

  • Use “lecture” sparingly. The synonym “presentation” better illustrates what’s actually happening.

  • Avoid redundancy, ex: "In the United States, the American National Church" "The American Church..."

  • Avoid using oxymorons

  • Take out commands, ex: "had been asked to accept the position" "had been recommended to take the position"

  • Do not use “witnessing”. It can be confused for conversion. Use “outreach” or “sharing Principle/CARP” when appropriate.

  • Anything done with other organizations (both internal and external: i.e. FFWPU, ACLC, YAYAM, UPF, or local service organizations, etc.) are partnerships. Clarify how this partnership furthers the mission of CARP in all instances.

  • Use “Divine Principle” in reference to the book but not the ideology. The ideology is “the Principle”, “Unification Principle”, “Unification Thought”, or “Headwing Thought”. You may also use “principles” in reference to the various principles from DP that are being taught or applied. (ex: Students studying DP are studying the Principle).


  • 2 doctors: Dr. Angel Espinoza, Dr. Marguerite Espinoza or . Drs. Angel and Marguerite Espinoza

  • For 2 reverends: The Reverends Mary and John Smith (The wife’s name always comes first. This is from the Emily Post website, the ultimate in proper etiquette)

The Blessing

  • First time: The Marriage Blessing Ceremony

  • Afterwards: the Blessing Ceremony (John participated in the Blessing Ceremony in 1982.)

  • NEVER say “mass weddings”

Korean Words

*Use the Korean in italics followed by the English translation in parentheses. Use what you see bolded, AS it is shown. If it’s not italicized, DO NOT italicize it yourself.

  • Hoon Dok Hwe (daily study of scripture)

  • Cheongpyeong Heaven and Earth Training Center

  • Cheon Jeong Gung (The Peace Museum) – Never refer to it as “Peace Palace”

  • Cheon Bok Gung (Unification Peace Temple)

  • Heungnam Prison

  • Aju

  • Hyojeong: heart of filial piety

  • Mujogeon (Unconditionally) – name of Korean song that young Unificationists often perform for True Mother

  • Hyung, Nuna, Oppa, Onni - just use their full names; don’t use these in writing; speaking is fine after sharing the full title of said person

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Components of a submitted piece

*Final submitted piece via email to attached as a .doc, .docx, or a Google doc. Word count for articles is 400, 640, or 800-word pieces, depending on the type of post (announcements are short, reports are of medium length and articles can be up to 800 words)

*Name file with the date, name of event or person giving testimony, and the word DELIVERABLE (to distinguish it from an internal report) - don’t use the word REPORT

  • Title

  • Body text

  • Photos

  • Captions

  • Contributor’s name (writer of the piece)

  • No formatting: left aligned, no indent, one return-space between each paragraph

  • Suggested title (attention-grabbing, enticing)

  • Author’s bio (name, CARP chapter + position, if applicable)

Main style points

  • Voice: Descriptive report with lively narrative. Don’t feel limited to talk about what happened in chronological order (this happened, then this). If it gets your message across better to say things out of order or leave out some elements, do it. The point is what message are you trying to convey? Why should the audience care? How does this further the vision of CARP? The point is not that you ate lunch at 12.

  • When referring to individuals, use first name after initial introduction (John Smith lives in New York…John has three sons.) When referring to more than one member of the same family use first names after initial introduction.

  • When referring to individuals with titles, use title and last name after initial introduction (Dr. John Smith lives in New York…Dr. Smith has three sons.)

  • When abbreviations first appear in an article, spell out the actual title and place abbreviation in brackets  – Generation Peace Academy (GPA) – afterwards, use only abbreviation.

  • Italicize title for books, tv shows, films; CDs, magazines, newspapers, journals, album titles (Do not italicize the Divine Principle, the Bible, the Quran)

  • quotation marks for speech titles

*Knowing when to use quotes, italics, or underlining can be difficult. Writer’s Relief proofreaders can help you proofread your creative writing submissions to be sure your titles are properly formatted.

Photo guidelines

If you are submitting a piece, you must also submit photos. DO NOT EMBED PHOTOS IN A WORD DOCUMENT. Please send them separately.

Photos should be high quality, with good composition, angling and lighting. Submit original photos (highest resolution possible)

    • Size: minimum size 5mb, 10×10

    • Type: jpeg, jpg, png

    • Send: dropbox or Google photos if very large. share link with

    • Send: email if under 25mb.

    • Captions for all images (from left to right:  names divided by commas. If the people have positions: Name, Position; Name, Position; etc.) place, event, city and state, date; what’s happening in the photo

Opinion Piece

  • Tone: Personal, humility, seeking depth and understanding, as if writing in a journal, backed up by research/experiences

  • Don't be afraid to make controversial statements as long as they are what you believe and you can back them up with solid analysis.

  • Be bold, yet be aware of and acknowledge counter-perspectives to your argument.

  • Keep it concise and focused; don't draw on indirectly related points

  • Develop a solid and valid message